Bernard Bolzano
Bolzano’s writings 

Bolzano’s writings 

The following is a list of Bolzano’s published writings on mathematics and related topics. The full bibliographical details of each publication are displayed by clicking on its title.

During his lifetime, Bolzano (1781-1848) published a variety of works on mathematics and related topics, beginning with his Betrachtungen über einige Gegenstände der Elementargeometrie, in 1804, and ending with a note on Christian Andreas Doppler’s work, in 1847. Bolzano, nevertheless, wrote more than he published, and his unpublished writings span his years as student to the end of his life. These manuscripts are mostly to be found at the Literární archiv Památníku národního písemnictví, in Prague (catalogue included in BBGA E 2/2), and the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, in Vienna (catalogue included in BBGA E 2/1).

In 1851 František Příhonský published, among others, the Paradoxien des Unendlichen, which Bolzano tried in vain to complete, and in 1883 a Czech translation of one of Bolzano’s unpublished writings on logic was published. But it was only with the publication of the Spisy Bernarda Bolzana in 1930-1948 that a more significant number of Bolzano’s mathematical writings were published for the first time. The publication of two other hitherto unpublished writings in 1958 and 1967 was connected to the work promoted by the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences to prepare a critical edition of Bolzano’s mathematical manuscripts.

In 1969 Jan Berg, Friedrich Kambartel, Jaromír Louzil, Bob van Rootselaar and Eduard Winter founded the Bernard Bolzano-Gesamtausgabe (BBGA), until recently edited by Edgar Morscher and published by Frommann-Holzboog, which is where the vast majority of Bolzano’s writings on mathematics and related topics have been or will be published. The BBGA critical edition comprises over a 100 published volumes, which are divided into 5 series (Einleitungsbände, Schriften, Nachlaß, Briefwechsel and Dokumente), and is the main textual resource for Bolzano studies.


Published in 1804-1848


1804: Betrachtungen über einige Gegenstände der Elementargeometrie
1810: Beyträge zu einer begründeteren Darstellung der Mathematik
1816: Der binomische Lehrsatz
1817: Die drey Probleme
1817: Rein analytischer Beweis
1827: “[Besprechung von] Theorie der Differenzial-Rechnung […] von Franz Xaver Moth”
1827: “[Besprechung von] Der Arithmetiker […] von Jakob Koref”
1831: “O Logice”
1837: Wissenschaftslehre
1842: Versuch einer objectiven Begründung der Lehre von der Zusammensetzung der Kräfte
1843: “Ein Paar Bemerkungen”
1843: Versuch einer objectiven Begründung der Lehre von den drei Dimensionen des Raumes
1847: “Christ. Doppler’s neueste Leistungen”

Posthumously published


1850: Neuer Anti-Kant
1851: Paradoxien des Unendlichen
1857: Atomenlehre
1883: Logika v kratičkém výtahu pro soukromé vyučování útlé mládeže
1930: Spisy Bernarda Bolzana / Bernard Bolzano’s Schriften. Functionenlehre
1931: Spisy Bernarda Bolzana / Bernard Bolzano’s Schriften. Zahlentheorie
1948: Spisy Bernarda Bolzana / Bernard Bolzano’s Schriften. Geometrische Arbeiten
1958: “Verhältnisse unter den Sätzen, die auf der Annahme gewisser veränderlichen Bestandtheile beruhen”
1962: Theorie der reellen Zahlen
1967: “Anti-Euklid”
1969–: Bernard Bolzano-Gesamtausgabe
2021: “[Beantwortungen der] Concursfragen für die Lehrkanzel der Mathematik an der Universität zu Prag”